Sgarosolsky (author of the brilliant intelligence “Theory of the Nation”), Yu.
Kovalevsky himself understands the history of society as a natural and natural process in which many factors play an equal role, but none of them is decisive. It is the same as recognizing the equivalent role of many factors in the functioning of a living organism and considering it as a unity. In general, public life is explained by him through "factor theory" that is, the theory of the functional connection of social phenomena.
In the book "Modern sociology" Kovalevsky advocates the establishment of two directions, the harmonious combination of which can ensure the happy development of society. An individual cannot be sacrificed to a family, clan, state, etc., but his activity must at the same time be coordinated with the activity of other, equal units and communities; their joint efforts must be directed to the common good.
Finally, the economist M. Tugan-Baranovsky (1865-1919) moves from Marxism to an ethical understanding of social problems and substantiates the worldview of ethical socialism, implemented, in particular, in the forms of economic cooperation. In his opinion, historical progress consists in the spiritualization of man, in the shift of the center of gravity of human life from the sphere of production to the sphere of higher spiritual needs; hence the importance of economic life will gradually decrease. Such views of the Ukrainian scientist, expressed several decades ago, resonate with modern theories of post-industrial society in Western sociology.
The statistical and sociographic works of Ukrainian extras, first of all O. Rusov and F. Shcherbyna, are of considerable interest for the history of Ukrainian sociology.
It should also not be mentioned that in the period we are considering, sociological works are published by the Scientific Society. T. Shevchenko. A group of researchers unites around the publishing house of this society, which includes V. Okhrymovych (researcher of sociology of family relations), V. Sgarosolsky (author of a brilliant intelligence "Theory of the nation"), Yu. Bachynsky (he owns a famous journalistic work "Ukraine irredenta" that is "Ukraine is not liberated" from Latin. irredenta terra – land not liberated) and others. They write and publish their works in the journals of numerous commissions of the NTSh, among which after the First World War a prominent place is occupied by the Commission of Economy, Sociology and Statistics in Lviv.
3. Domestic sociology and sociological works of Ukrainians abroad of the twentieth century
After 1917, the development of domestic sociology did not stop, although it was not unambiguous. The first years of the Bolshevik regime in Ukraine coincided with the acceleration of the institutionalization of sociology, ie its legal and organizational assertion as an independent science. In the 20s p. scientific and scientific-publishing work is almost completely concentrated in the All-Ukrainian Academy of Sciences (hereinafter – VUAN). Of its three departments, the socio-economic department had a special department of sociology – the first in Ukraine – headed by B. Kistyakivsky (1918-1920).
Unfortunately, his works have not been found since the revival of Ukrainian statehood. After his death, the department was headed by Marxist S. Semkivsky, but this department had no noticeable results. In 1923-1930 p. printed "Notes of the socio-economic department" some posts which raise the problems of sociology (M. Tugan-Baranovsky, S. Dnistryansky, O. Gilyarov, etc.).
M. Hrushevsky devoted his activity to the organization of sociological studies in the institutions of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, returning to Ukraine in 1924. His closest employees are O. Hermaize, P. Klymenko, daughter Kateryna Hrushevska. The cabinet of primitive (ie ancient) culture, headed by her, researches the issues of genetic sociology and since 1926 publishes a yearbook "Primitive citizenship"… K. Hrushevska publishes her works here "An attempt at a sociological explanation of a folk tale" "Sociology of antiquity" etc. F. Savchenko publishes his works in the same direction "Primitive culture" and "Sociology in the concept of the new French democracy"…
One of the reasons for M. Hrushevsky’s return to Ukraine was the desire to transfer the Ukrainian Sociological Institute (hereinafter ALL), founded by him in Vienna, to his homeland and the desire to study the history of his people in his own environment.
Immediately after returning to Kyiv (March 24, 1924) M. Hrushevsky delivered a report "Ukrainian Sociological Institute and Research Department of the History of General and Ukrainian Culture" before the joint meeting of VUAN. In it, he acquaints the audience with the plans for ALL, in particular the project of creating five departments and a permanent seminar. However, the Institute of Marxism did not support this project, perhaps because M. Hrushevsky is trying to preserve it "freedom of scientific thought and labor, not bound by any party program" to create an institution that thanks the government and society for the material support of pedagogical work and research, "but does not know outside interference in their work and organization"…
At the same time, in 1924, instead of the institute, only the research department of Ukrainian history was opened, headed by M. Hrushevsky, and with it – two sections, one of which (section of methodology and sociology) works under the leadership of O. Hermaise. The functions of the sociological institute actually began to perform formed in late 1925. "Association for Cultural and Historical Experience" which during 1926-1927 p. held 24 meetings, where 51 reports were delivered in the course of the sociological method.
Based on related sciences, in the 1920s a number of institutes within the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences paid a lot of attention to sociological issues. Since 1936, with the intensification of the wave of repression, there has been an almost complete elimination of any sociological research. This condition has existed for over 30 years, despite sporadic "warming" and attempts to revive sociological studies within academic institutions. Sociology of the Soviet period can be considered one of the most backward sciences both in Ukraine and in the USSR as a whole.
Assessing the position of sociological thought in the conditions of the existence of a totalitarian regime, Ukrainian sociologist in exile A. Symyrenko emphasizes that the underdevelopment of sociology in Ukraine and other Soviet republics was a deliberately phenomenon planned. Modern Ukrainian researcher of the history of national sociology V. Stepanenko adds that the situation of sociology in Soviet Ukraine was even worse than in the USSR as a whole, because there was a more brutal, conservative political and ideological regime, which openly showed antipathy to sociology. Much damage was also done by the artificially created provincialism of Ukrainian sociology, when the best forces of domestic sociologists were concentrated outside Ukraine.
The situation has been changing since the mid-1980s, with the advent of the era of publicity and perestroika. Slowly changes the attitude to sociology, growing awareness of its social significance and benefits. There is even a certain fashion for this science, when without sociological surveys and examinations it was difficult to imagine newspaper and magazine publications, radio programs and television programs, especially on political topics. But proper conditions for the unimpeded development of sociological thought within the USSR were never created.
The collapse of the USSR and the creation of a number of independent states on its ruins, Ukraine’s independence marks the beginning of a qualitatively new stage in the progress of sociology as a science. It becomes independent, acquires the status of a separate social science, faculties and departments of professional sociologists are opened in universities, postgraduate studies in sociology begin to function, specialized councils for the defense of dissertations for the degree of candidate and doctor of sociological sciences are formed, as well as the Ukrainian Sociological Association. The number of works and scientific publications on sociology is growing, the journal is published "Philosophical and sociological thought"…
The development of sociology is becoming an urgent need for the national revival of Ukraine and, conversely, the processes of revival and state formation require a kind of sociological support. A clear manifestation of these trends is the establishment in 1990 of the Institute of Sociology in the system of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine.
Now domestic sociology is in a difficult search for its own authenticity, develops its methodological basis, conceptual scheme and the corresponding conceptual and categorical apparatus. Today, the Ukrainian sociological school is slowly gaining strength, acquiring the features of a national school, which is manifested not so much in the issues of research, but in the emphasis on the socio-humanitarian tradition of Ukrainian culture in general.
Zakharchenko MV, Pogoriliy OI History of sociology from antiquity to the beginning of the XX century. – K.: 1993. Pogoriliy O. I. Sociological thought of the XX century: Textbook. – Kyiv: 1996. Picha VM, Chernysh NY, Kondratyk LY From the history of Ukrainian sociological thought. – Lviv: 1995. Pogoriliy OI Sociological thought of the XX century: Textbook. – K.: 1996. Ruchka AA, Tancher VV Course of history of theoretical sociology. – Kyiv: 1995.Sociology: buy a compare essay online Course of lectures (edited by VM Pichi) – Lviv: 1996.Stepanenko V. Ukrainian sociology in search of self \\ Philosophical and sociological thought, 1993, – No. 11-12. Sociology: Materials for the lecture course (Picha V., Semashko O., Chernysh N.) – Kyiv: 1996. Sociology: Lecture notes for students of humanities universities. – K.: 1992.
Auguste Comte: sociology as a science of society. Abstract
Sociology, according to Comte, can and should be based on the model of advanced natural sciences, on the foundation of the identified laws, the links between recurring phenomena
Sociology as an independent branch of scientific knowledge emerged quite late, in the 1840’s, and is a relatively young science. The first to revise the established classification of sciences and distinguish in it a separate science of society, is the French scientist Auguste Comte (1798-1857), who is considered the founder of sociology. In his six-volume work "Course of positive philosophy" the name was first used "sociology" and its subject and method are substantiated.
O. Comte lived in France in such a period of its history, which was marked by the struggle of old and new classes and estates, frequent changes in the forms of political system. The rise to power of Napoleon Bonaparte, who began as a Republican and became emperor, the rise and fall of the empire, a series of bourgeois revolutions, interspersed with the restoration of the monarchy, a deep and pervasive crisis of old society and the agony of the birth of a new bourgeois system. – All this had a huge impact on Comte’s worldview.