The new sanctions also included a permanent extension of an arms embargo.

Therefore, the suspension of the sanctions remains in force.

According to Washington’s reading, the sanctions came back into effect on Saturday evening at 8 p.m. local time (2 a.m. CEST). The US would not hesitate to enforce the sanctions, wrote US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo on Twitter. They expected all UN member states to fulfill their obligations under the reinstated sanctions. Pompeo named Iran a leading state sponsor of terrorism and anti-Semitism. The new sanctions also included a permanent extension of an arms embargo. “This is great news for peace in the region,” said Pompeo. However, an extension of the UN arms embargo against Iran is controversial among the permanent members of the Security Council.

THE SNAPBACK

“Snapback” is a possibility for the member states of the nuclear agreement to denounce Iranian rule violations before the Security Council. This means that all UN sanctions from the period before the agreement was reached in 2015 can be reinstated within 30 days – without other members being able to prevent this with a veto. In their opinion, the US did so in August.

WHAT COULD HAPPEN NOW

It is unclear how the US government will act if most countries fail to follow suit. The US special envoy for Iran and Venezuela, Elliott Abrams, recently announced steps that the United States would take to enforce sanctions against Tehran. This could also include direct measures against those countries in the nuclear agreement that are opposing themselves – besides Russia and China, these include Germany, Great Britain and France.

THE DIFFERENT VIEWS

The foreign ministers from Berlin, London and Paris reaffirmed their position early on Sunday morning. The re-establishment of the punitive measures pursued by the Trump administration could “have no legal effect,” said the chief diplomats. Germany, France and Great Britain are members of the nuclear deal and want to keep the rules just like China, Russia and the EU. Despite many problems, Europeans see it as the only way to maintain dialogue with Tehran.

The US government, on the other hand, has been a thorn in the side of the nuclear deal since Trump’s inauguration. She wants to irreparably damage it before the US presidential election. Washington is of the opinion that for the snapback it is sufficient to mention the USA in the UN resolution, which translates the nuclear agreement into international law. US Secretary of State Pompeo announced in August that he would take action against countries with a different opinion. “If the UN sanctions are violated, we will do everything we can to enforce them.”

In view of the different views on the matter, UN General Secretary António Guterres sees no reason to recognize the snapback as completed. “It is not up to the Secretary-General to act as if there is no such uncertainty,” Guterres wrote in a letter to the Security Council. The letter has been submitted to the German Press Agency. Observers in New York see the position of the US compared to August but further weakened, also because the majority of the Security Council had refused to recognize US actions. It could therefore also be that Washington lets the matter rest.

THE REACTION OF IRAN

Iran’s President Hassan Ruhani said on Sunday: “The US could not form a coalition for their sanctions against us and that was a great diplomatic defeat for the Americans.” Iran was not intimidated by a policy of maximum pressure from the US.

Foreign Minister Mohammed Javad Zarif invalidated the US initiative. He spoke of a propaganda ploy before the presidential election in November. The fact that the USA is still mentioned in the relevant UN resolution on Iran despite its withdrawal from the nuclear agreement has no legal significance.argumentative essay topic The Iranian chief diplomat mocked that the UN resolution was similar to a certificate of divorce: “The names of the ex-partners are mentioned in the document, but officially and legally the couple no longer have anything to do with each other.”

The Hague (dpa) – In the appeal proceedings against the Serbian ex-general Ratko Mladic, the prosecution has again called for a life sentence. “Life imprisonment is the only appropriate punishment for him,” said prosecutor Barbara Goy in The Hague before the UN war crimes tribunal.

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In the first instance, Mladic, now 77 years old, was sentenced to life imprisonment in 2017 for the genocide in Srebrenica, war crimes and crimes against humanity. He appealed against this. The final verdict is not expected before the end of the year.

Mladic, also known as the “butcher of the Balkans”, firmly denied all accusations and criticized the UN tribunal as the mouthpiece of the West. “I’m not a saint, I’m just a simple man,” he said in his closing remarks. “Fate enabled me to defend my country, which was destroyed by Western powers.” He also included the Vatican, the USA and Germany.

The prosecution cited ample incontrovertible evidence of Mladic’s guilt. “Ratko Mladic is one of the worst war criminals to ever appear before an international court.”

He played a “key role” in the genocide, said prosecutor Laurel Baig. Under his leadership, Serbian troops overran the UN protection zone Srebrenica in July 1995 and subsequently murdered more than 8,000 Bosnian Muslim men and boys. “Mladic was in command,” said the prosecutor. He was involved in the planning and execution. “Without Mladic, the crimes in Srebrenica would not have been committed.”

According to the prosecution, Mladic planned together with others to establish an “ethnically pure Serbian state”. According to the indictment, the means to achieve this were murder, displacement and genocide of the non-Serbian population. The prosecution has also appealed and wants to get another conviction for genocide in other municipalities as well.

The defense lawyers, however, demand acquittal. Mladic did not know about the mass murder in Srebrenica and did not give the order. Defense lawyer Dragan Ivetic called the deportation of thousands of Muslim women, children and elderly from Srebrenica a “humanitarian evacuation”. Prosecutor Baig said: “There was nothing humanitarian about this action. On the contrary. It was barbaric.”

While the prosecutors described massacres and deportations, Mladic shook his head several times in the negative and laughed. Occasionally he would leaf through a biography about him.

Mladic was not caught and handed over to the tribunal until 2011, 16 years after the end of the war. He is also said to be guilty of the long siege of Sarajevo with more than 10,000 dead and the expulsion of thousands of Bosnian Muslims and Croats. The Srebrenica genocide is considered the worst war crime in Europe after 1945.

It is the final trial of the UN tribunal on Srebrenica. In March 2019, Mladic’s political companion, Serb leader Radovan Karadzic (75), had already been finally found guilty and sentenced to life imprisonment.

Mladic’s appointment process had been postponed twice and now took place partly via video connections due to the corona measures. No audience was allowed in the courtroom.

New York (AP) – According to a study, the richest percent of the world’s population blows more than twice as many climate-damaging carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere as the poorer half of mankind together.

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This emerges from a report that the development organization Oxfam published before the general debate of the 75th UN General Assembly in New York that began on Tuesday. Oxfam called for the wealthy to reduce their CO2 consumption, to invest more in public infrastructure and to rebuild the economy in a climate-friendly manner.

The report focuses on the years from 1990 to 2015, which are important for climate policy, and in which emissions doubled worldwide. The richest ten percent (630 million) were responsible for over half (52 percent) of the CO2 emissions during this time, reported Oxfam. The richest percent (63 million) alone consumed 15 percent, while the poorer half of the world’s population was only responsible for seven percent.

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The catastrophic consequences of the climate crisis are already being felt in many places. “This is due to a policy that focuses on consumption incentives, promises constant growth and economically divides the world into winners and losers,” said Ellen Ehmke, an expert on social inequality at Oxfam Germany. “The poorest pay the price for the consumption frenzy of a rich minority.”

In Germany, according to Oxfam, the richest ten percent or 8.3 million people are responsible for 26 percent of German CO2 emissions in the period examined. With 41.5 million people, the poorer half of the German population, five times larger, only consumed a little more at 29 percent. One lever in the fight against climate change is traffic, especially air traffic. Oxfam is particularly critical of city SUVs, which were the second largest emission driver between 2010 and 2018.

“We have to solve the climate crisis and the inequality crisis together,” said Ehmke. The excessive CO2 consumption of the richest is at the expense of everyone and must be restricted. “Taxes on climate-damaging SUVs and frequent flying would be a first step.”

Tripoli / Berlin (dpa) – It was one of the largest summit meetings that has taken place in Berlin in recent years. The results were hailed as a diplomatic success.

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Federal Chancellor Angela Merkel (CDU) and Foreign Minister Heiko Maas (SPD) succeeded on January 19 in bringing almost all states to one table that fueled the war in Libya with weapons and fighters. And they made her promise not to do that anymore. This Monday, the foreign ministers of the countries participating in the summit will take stock in a video conference. It will probably turn out to be ambivalent.

PARTICIPANTS: THE HELPERS OF THE CONFLICT PARTIES

Representatives from 16 countries and international organizations took part in the Berlin summit. Among them were the most important supporters of the conflicting parties in Libya: The internationally recognized government of Prime Minister Fajis al-Sarradsch in the capital Tripoli receives help mainly from Turkey, his opponents, led by General Khalifa Haftar, in the east of the country from Russia, Egypt and the United States United Arab Emirates.

The USA, Great Britain, France, China, Italy, Algeria and the Republic of the Congo were also there in Berlin. These countries are also invited to the video conference chaired by UN Secretary General António Guterres and Foreign Minister Heiko Mass.

AIM OF THE CONFERENCE: REVIEW BERLIN RESOLUTIONS

At the summit in Berlin, the participants committed themselves to comply with the arms embargo on Libya that had existed for nine years and to refrain from interfering in the conflict. To what extent this has succeeded and what still needs to be done will be checked at the current Libya conference.

BALANCE SHEET: WEAPONS CONTINUE TO BE DELIVERED

Like the years of war in Syria and Yemen, Libya has increasingly developed into an international conflict. The foreign powers mentioned fire him with weapons and mercenaries from outside. Above all, the renegade General Haftar follows the logic of the war and tries to maintain his influence through attacks. According to experts, if the fighting calms down, the soon-to-be-77-year-old will also lose influence.

According to Jalel Harchaoui from the Dutch Clingersael Institute, Russia has increasingly established itself militarily in the country. With the help of the UAE, Russia brought mercenaries and equipment to Libya. Russia had defense systems and radars built and land mines laid, says Harchaoui. Mercenaries from the Russian “Wagner Group” would also occupy important oil terminals