financial ratios list

In interpreting the ratios, it is better to have a basis for comparison, such as past performance and industry standards. When computing for a ratio that involves an income statement item and a balance sheet item, we usually use the average for the balance sheet item. This is because the income statement item pertains to a whole period’s activity.

We will outline some of the key financial ratios classified according to the aspect of the business they describe. Further detailed information can be had by visiting the pages each of these terms link to. Some of these are stock ratios that illuminate the valuation aspect of the stock, while other ratios speak directly to the various business indicators. So without further ado, let’s get to the list of financial ratios every investor needs to know. All of this information will come from a company’s financial statements.

financial ratios list

For example, the account receivable turnover ratio assess how efficiently an entity manages its accounts receivable while the account payable turnover assess how well account payable are managed. Efficiency ratios are the group of financial ratios that use to assess how well an entity could manage its assets and liability maximize sales, profit and add value to the company. Account payable turnover uses to determine the rate the entity pays off its suppliers. Three main elements that use to calculate this ratio credit purchase from suppliers, cost of sales, and averages account payable during the period. The gross margin ratio is calculating by dividing gross profit over sales of the period. A high-profit margin indicates that an entity spends less than a competitor on the direct cost of products or services.

In both situations, a higher number indicates a higher level of efficiency when selling inventory and collecting receivables. Return on assets compares net income before taxes to total assets and helps show the efficiency of management when using assets to generate profits. Type Of Financial RatioFinancial ratios are of five types which retained earnings are liquidity ratios, leverage financial ratios, efficiency ratio, profitability ratios, and market value ratios. These ratios analyze the financial performance of a company for an accounting period. Leverage ratios also from one of the types of financial ratios, which is deeply analyzed in the process of financial ratio analysis.

Days Payable

They can also be used to benchmark company performance over time and in different economic environments. Financial ratios may not be directly comparable between bookkeeping companies that use different accounting methods or follow various standard accounting practices. They also let you track how a given company performs over time.

Activity ratios measure the effectiveness of the firm’s use of resources. It is important to make this distinction when calculating ratios. Peter Leeds is an expert on investing in stocks, and has over a decade of experience working with financial planning, derivatives, equities, fixed income, project management, and analytics. Inventory to assets ratio Inventory/Total Assets—shows the portion of assets tied up in inventory.

Types Of Financial Ratios For Analyzing Stocks

This financial ratio measures profitability in relation to the total capital employed in a business enterprise. Net Working CapitalThe Net Working Capital is the difference between the total current assets financial ratios list and total current liabilities. A positive net working capital indicates that a company has a large number of assets, while a negative one indicates that the company has a large number of liabilities.

Current liabilities are generally paid out of current assets or through creation of other current liabilities. Examples of such liabilities include accounts payable, customer advances, etc. financial ratios list SG&A expenses such as sales commissions and incentives tend to vary directly with overall sales volume, while expenses such as call centers and customer service tend to be relatively fixed.

You will have to compare the debt/equity ratio over time to see if it has been coming down . Alternatively, since debt is a cheaper way to finance a company, you may want to see a company increasing their debt/equity ratio if it was too low earlier. Is the company over-relying on debt compared to the competitors?

Accounting Topics

Another thing that we need to consider when interpreting these ratios is the conflict between numbers of ratio with liability turnover or payable turnover ratio. Profitability ratios are used to measure the ability of a company to generate earnings relative to the resources. Efficiency ratios are used to measure the ability of a company to use its assets to earn revenue. Take note that many of the ratios are often expressed in percentage – just multiply them by 100%. Important Profitability RatiosProfitability ratios help in evaluating the ability of a company to generate income against the expenses.

  • Ratio analysis is one method an investor can use to gain that understanding.
  • Higher values are generally favorable, meaning that the company is efficient in generating income on new investment.
  • Here’s the formula to calculate the average collection period for a given year.
  • The analyst uses these groups of ratios to assess how well an entity could generate profits from using certain resources as well as expenses.
  • It is calculated by dividing the operating profit by total revenue and expressing as a percentage.
  • If a single customer generates a high percentage of your revenues, you could face financial difficulty if that customer stops buying.
  • Some financial ratios are uses to assess the financial healthiness or the financial position of the entity.

It is the type of cost which is not dependent on the business activity. Note that if a company has zero or negative earnings, the P/E ratio will no longer make sense, and will often appear as N/A for not applicable. Andy Smith is a Certified Financial Planner (CFP®), licensed realtor and educator with over 35 years of diverse financial management experience. He is an expert on personal finance, corporate finance and real estate and has assisted thousands of clients in meeting their financial goals over his career. Capital efficiency and solvency are of interest to lenders and investors. The quantity, quality and timing of revenues can determine long-term success.

Net Tangible & Intangible Assets

A poor net profit margin—or one that is declining over time—can be an indication of a variety of problems. Perhaps you’re not doing a good job of keeping tabs on consumable office supplies, or maybe you have an employee theft problem. This percentage represents the net worth of businesses and includes elements such as the value of common and preferred shares, as well as earned, contributed and other surpluses. This figure represents the average value of all resources controlled by an enterprise as a result of past transactions or events from which future economic benefits may be obtained. This percentage represents all other assets not elsewhere recorded, such as long-term bonds.

financial ratios list

Ratio analysis can help us quickly make judgement on the strength of a company’s operations and financial condition. Now that you’ve reached the end of the list, you may be disappointed to learn that no single financial ratio is the “tell-all” for your small business. When conducting a ratio analysis, be sure to petty cash compare several different ratios to industry benchmarks for a better understanding on the health of your firm. Financial ratios are important, but often overlooked by small business owners. When accurate figures are applied, these calculations are useful to determine a firm’s performance and financial situation.

The current ratio is one of the most important liquidity ratios. This ratio uses the relationship between current assets and current liability to measure the entity liquidity problem of the entity. If the ratio is below, that mean current assets is higher than the current liability. This indicates that an entity could use its current assets to pay of current liability.

Analyzing Financial Statements

For example, an analyst using a return on assets to assess the ability of that an entity to generate income from the assets that it has on hand. Financial ratios are the tool that uses to assess an entity’s financial healthiness. There are many types and classes of financial ratios that use or tailor based on their requirement.

What is a good efficiency ratio?

An efficiency ratio of 50% or under is considered optimal. If the efficiency ratio increases, it means a bank's expenses are increasing or its revenues are decreasing. … This means the company's operations became more efficient, increasing its assets by $80 million for the quarter.

Ideally, a business wants to have several times more current assets than current liabilities, in order to be assured of paying its bills on time. There are various types of financial ratios, grouped by their relevance to different aspects of a company’s business as well as to their interest to different audiences. Monitoring a company’s performance using ratio analysis and comparing those measures to industry benchmarks often leads to improvements in company performance.

Comparing financial ratios with industry benchmarks can be critical in identifying areas of strength and weakness. In some instances, ratio analysis can even predict future bankruptcy. This list examines ten of the most important financial ratios for your small business. A financial ratio is a measure of the relationship between two or more components on the company’s financial statements. These ratios give you a quick and straightforward way to track performance, benchmark against those within an industry, spot trouble and proactively put solutions in place. In fact the safety margin of the company is clear from its interest coverage ratio which corresponds to the ability of a company to fulfill its interest obligations.

Ratio analysis, when performed regularly over time, can also help small businesses recognize and adapt to trends affecting their operations. Often, a small business’s ability to obtain debt or equity financing will depend on the company’s financial ratios. The riskiness of a company increases with its higher degree of leverage.

Ratios are time-sensitive by nature, because they measure data that changes over time. You can gain an edge from this when you compare ratios from one time period to another to get an idea of a company’s growth or other changes over time. Ratios give you a picture of aspects of a company’s financial health, from how well it uses its assets to how well it can cover its debt. One by itself might not give you the full picture unless it’s viewed as part of a whole. But knowing that the company’s price-to-earnings ratio (P/E) is 8.5 provides you with more context. It tells you that when divided by its earnings per share (EPS or $0.25 in this case), its price ($2.13) equals 8.5.